Having a share drive/folder on a central server and allowing access to it generally used for easy access to the shared content and to increase storage for the users. Once the shared folder is created on the Server the users and easily map it on their machines so that they need not to remember its name/ip each time they need to access this drive/folder.
Mapping is sometimes also referred to a “Mounting” i.e Mounting a network drive/Folder.
Lets see how we can map the shared folder on the Windows 7 machine.
Click on Start > Goto My Computer.
It will bring up the window which will show the drives on your machine. Click on Map Network Drive on the top.
This will bring up a new window, which will show you the drive name, which you can choose from the drop down from A-Z. Also it will ask you to put in the folder name in the format : \\Server\Share i.e you need to specify the Servername or ip which is hosting the shared folder followed by the share folder name.
In my case, my server admin has hosted this folder on the Server with ip address : 10.20.20.10 and the name of the folder being shared is : TFTPRoot so I’ll use the folder name as :\\10.20.20.10\TFTPRoot.
Click on Connect using different credentials and click on Finish.
This will ask you to login with your credentials, contact your server admin and check in case your local credentials do not work.
Once authentication is successful, it will add in the drive name that you selected in your drive list.
Lets see how we can mount a drive on a Mac OS.
Open the finder which should be located on your Dock. Click on the Go menu and click on Connect to Server.
This will open up the Connect to Server window. In the Server address type in the Servername/ip followed by the folder name as we did for the Windows machine in the format: smb://10.20.20.10/TFTPRoot
Click on the Plus sign to add this folder in your favorite folder list so that next time you want to connect to it you can directly choose from this list. And then click on Connect.
You’ll be asked to authentication, please put in your credentials and click OK. It will create an icon of a Server on your desktop click on it to connect to your Share drive/folder.
We can compare a loopback adapter to a loopback interface on any router. Like the loopback interface on a router is not associated to any physical interface and is always up irrespective of the physical connectivity to the Router, similar a a loopback adapter.
A loopback interface is a virtual interface that resides on a router. It is not connected to any other device. Loopback interfaces are very useful because they will never go down, unless the entire router goes down.
There might be a situation where in you would need to assign an ip address to your laptop and use it for any testing/application. You would not be able to use the ip address assigned to your physical interface useless the physical interface itself is connected to a lan cable. May be a situation wherein the ip address assigned to your physical interface is via dhcp from your Service Provider router and changing the ip on the physical interface is not possible.
How to create a loopback adapter on windows machine :
Click Start > On the search Program and Files type : hdwwiz
or Open cmd and type:hdwwiz it should bring up the Hardware Wizard.
Once you get the add Hardware Wizard window click Next > Click on Install the hardware that I manually select from the list.
You are ready to go.
Goto your network connections ( shortcut type ncpa.cpl in the cmd window), you should see a Local Area Connection 1 or 2 depending on the number of existing connections.
You can disable/enable this adpater as required and right click on properties to assign ip address and use it .
Like many other, I was under a misconception that IP-HELPER command was only used for relaying DHCP packets, until recently I found other uses of IP-HELPER.
As we know we configure helper address so that the L3 device can redirect the broadcast packets as a unicast to the helper address. Routers use helper addresses to forward broadcasts to another server or router on another network.
DHCP is not the only critical service that uses broadcasts. Cisco routers and other devices might use broadcasts to locate TFTP servers. Some clients might need to broadcast to locate a TACACS security server. In a complex hierarchical network, clients might not reside on the same subnet as key servers. These broadcast requests would be dropped by the Router as per its default behavior.
Some clients are unable to make a connection without services such as DHCP. For this reason, the administrator must provide DHCP and DNS servers on all subnets or use the Cisco IOS software helper address feature. Running services such as DHCP or DNS on several computers creates overhead and administrative problems, so the first option is not very appealing. When possible, administrators use the ip helper-address command to relay broadcast requests for these key User Datagram Protocol (UDP) services.
By using the ip helper-address command, a router can be configured to accept a broadcast request for a UDP service and then forward it as a unicast to a specific IP addressBy using the ip helper-address command, a router can be configured to accept a broadcast request for a UDP service and then forward it as a unicast to a specific IP address.
By default, the ip helper-address command forwards the eight UDP servicesBy default, the ip helper-address command forwards the eight UDP services
NetBIOS name service
NetBIOS datagram service
In addition to the default eight services the Cisco IOS software provides the global configuration command ip forward-protocol to allow an administrator to forward any UDP port.To forward UDP on port 517, use the global configuration command ip forward-protocol udp 517. You can also take off the default services using the same command using the keyword “no”.
RTA(config-if)#ip helper-address 192.168.1.254 RTA(config-if)#exit RTA(config)#ip forward-protocol udp 517 RTA(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 37 RTA(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 49 RTA(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 137
DHCP Fingerprinting is a method of detecting the end device OS based on the dhcp exchange packets. In today’s network where we are talking about IoE , BYOD it is required to identify the devices in your network and mark them accordingly.
Why do we need Fingerprinting:
With BYOD personal devices are making their way into the workplace, and it is a tough job for the network administrators to dynamically detect these devices and make sure these devices are compliant and to enforce required polices on these devices. Detecting the devices type/OS is also part of the play.
Due to the proliferation of BYOD (Bring Your Own Devices)/mobile devices connecting mostly over the Wireless Network, it becomes difficult to identify and control the types of devices that can connect to the network, and once connected, to determine what access privileges they might have.
With DHCP Fingerprinting, DHCP Servers or devices like IPAM Controllers or Wireless Controllers, can use DHCP Fingerprinting to identify the device type, manufacturer name and OS of the clients/devices connecting to the network, categorize them into ACLs, and control which device can connect to the network and what it can do.
How it works:
DHCP Fingerprinting is one of the methods that help us in identifying the OS on the devices bases on the dhcp option.
The complete DHCP process is like this:
The DHCP packets contain multiple options. One of the most important option which is used for dhcp fingerprinting is the option : 55 called Parameter request list, this option is present in the packets sent from the client end i.e the Discover and Request Packets.
The option 55: Parameter Request list in the above capture is :
1,6,15,44,3,33,150 and 43
A DHCP discover request asks for DHCP options in a specific sequence. This makes DHCP Fingerprinting possible – identifying a device or OS requesting an IP address based on the requested DHCP options.
Fingerbank has got a repository of such fingerprints:
So basically the user-agent string is something which identifies your browser and provides certain system details to servers hosting the webpage you are visiting. When you visit a webpage, the browser sends the user-agent string to the server hosting the page that you are visiting. This string indicates which browser is being used, its version number, and details about your system, such as operating system and version. The web server can use this information to provide content that is tailored for your specific browser.
You can see the user-agent in the wireshark captures when you machine sends out the GET request or on the browser itself.
You can also check the user-agent on the browser itself. Lets see how:
Type chrome://version in the address bar.
Type about: in the address bar.
While we might be considered user agent sniffing a horrible practice on the client side, however sniffing user agent is done quite a bit on the server side to serve up the appropriate page version of a site, or redirect to, for example, the mobile version of the site. This can be a dangerous road but most large site with a separate mobile interface do it.
The following is the user agent for Firefox on a mobile device:
In the beginning there was NCSA Mosaic, and Mosaic called itself NCSA_Mosaic/2.0 (Windows 3.1), and Mosaic displayed pictures along with text, and there was much rejoicing. And behold, then came a new web browser known as “Mozilla”, being short for “Mosaic Killer,” but Mosaic was not amused, so the public name was changed to Netscape, and Netscape called itself Mozilla/1.0 (Win3.1), and there was more rejoicing. And Netscape supported frames, and frames became popular among the people, but Mosaic did not support frames, and so came “user agent sniffing” and to “Mozilla” webmasters sent frames, but to other browsers they sent not frames.
And Netscape said, let us make fun of Microsoft and refer to Windows as “poorly debugged device drivers,” and Microsoft was angry. And so Microsoft made their own web browser, which they called Internet Explorer, hoping for it to be a “Netscape Killer”. And Internet Explorer supported frames, and yet was not Mozilla, and so was not given frames. And Microsoft grew impatient, and did not wish to wait for webmasters to learn of IE and begin to send it frames, and so Internet Explorer declared that it was “Mozilla compatible” and began to impersonate Netscape, and called itself Mozilla/1.22 (compatible; MSIE 2.0; Windows 95), and Internet Explorer received frames, and all of Microsoft was happy, but webmasters were confused.And Microsoft sold IE with Windows, and made it better than Netscape, and the first browser war raged upon the face of the land. And behold, Netscape was killed, and there was much rejoicing at Microsoft. But Netscape was reborn as Mozilla, and Mozilla built Gecko, and called itself Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.0; en-US; rv:1.1) Gecko/20020826, and Gecko was the rendering engine, and Gecko was good. And Mozilla became Firefox, and called itself Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; sv-SE; rv:1.7.5) Gecko/20041108 Firefox/1.0, and Firefox was very good. And Gecko began to multiply, and other browsers were born that used its code, and they called themselves Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; PPC Mac OS X Mach-O; en-US; rv:1.7.2) Gecko/20040825 Camino/0.8.1 the one, and Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; de; rv:126.96.36.199) Gecko/20071008 SeaMonkey/1.0 another, each pretending to be Mozilla, and all of them powered by Gecko.
And Gecko was good, and IE was not, and sniffing was reborn, and Gecko was given good web code, and other browsers were not. And the followers of Linux were much sorrowed, because they had built Konqueror, whose engine was KHTML, which they thought was as good as Gecko, but it was not Gecko, and so was not given the good pages, and so Konquerer began to pretend to be “like Gecko” to get the good pages, and called itself Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Konqueror/3.2; FreeBSD) (KHTML, like Gecko) and there was much confusion. Then cometh Opera and said, “surely we should allow our users to decide which browser we should impersonate,” and so Opera created a menu item, and Opera called itself Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; en) Opera 9.51, or Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0; U; en; rv:1.8.1) Gecko/20061208 Firefox/2.0.0 Opera 9.51, or Opera/9.51 (Windows NT 5.1; U; en) depending on which option the user selected.
And Apple built Safari, and used KHTML, but added many features, and forked the project, and called it WebKit, but wanted pages written for KHTML, and so Safari called itself Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; PPC Mac OS X; de-de) AppleWebKit/85.7 (KHTML, like Gecko) Safari/85.5, and it got worse.
And Microsoft feared Firefox greatly, and Internet Explorer returned, and called itself Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.0) and it rendered good code, but only if webmasters commanded it to do so. And then Google built Chrome, and Chrome used Webkit, and it was like Safari, and wanted pages built for Safari, and so pretended to be Safari. And thus Chrome used WebKit, and pretended to be Safari, and WebKit pretended to be KHTML, and KHTML pretended to be Gecko, and all browsers pretended to be Mozilla, and Chrome called itself Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; en-US) AppleWebKit/525.13 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/0.2.149.27 Safari/525.13, and the user agent string was a complete mess, and near useless, and everyone pretended to be everyone else, and confusion abounded.